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The Axial Age Karl Jaspers (1883 - 1969)
The Axial Age Karl Jaspers (1883 - 1969)
Karl Theodor Jaspers (February 23, 1883  February 26, 1969)
Karl Theodor Jaspers (February 23, 1883 February 26, 1969)
A Striking Parallel
A Striking Parallel
Hundred Schools of Thought
Hundred Schools of Thought
Jixia Academy: Athens in China in the State of Qi
Jixia Academy: Athens in China in the State of Qi
Pre-Qin (221 BC) Prose Writing Historical Prose & Philosophical Prose
Pre-Qin (221 BC) Prose Writing Historical Prose & Philosophical Prose
The Warring States Period 403 BCE to 256 BCE Partition of the Jin
The Warring States Period 403 BCE to 256 BCE Partition of the Jin
Political Hierarchy Defined by Rites/Rituals of the Zhou Dynasty
Political Hierarchy Defined by Rites/Rituals of the Zhou Dynasty
During Duke of Yous (
During Duke of Yous (
Marquess Wen of Wei
Marquess Wen of Wei
Three Households/Ministers Divided the State of Jin Duke Lie of Jin
Three Households/Ministers Divided the State of Jin Duke Lie of Jin
Zhi Attacking Zhao A Dramatic Turn
Zhi Attacking Zhao A Dramatic Turn
What Shifted the Power Structure at a Critical Moment
What Shifted the Power Structure at a Critical Moment
Potential Danger in the Partition of the Jin http://www
Potential Danger in the Partition of the Jin http://www
Guiguzi & Shang Yang Two Consequential Figures
Guiguzi & Shang Yang Two Consequential Figures
Shang Yang Reform ca
Shang Yang Reform ca
Content of Shang Yangs Reform
Content of Shang Yangs Reform
Land Reform
Land Reform
???? ?
???? ?
Double-Edged Military Reform
Double-Edged Military Reform
Shang Yangs Legal Code Appeal lies in Equality
Shang Yangs Legal Code Appeal lies in Equality
Ying Si vs
Ying Si vs
Shang Yang, a Chinese Draco
Shang Yang, a Chinese Draco
Draconian punishments
Draconian punishments
Unified Ideology
Unified Ideology
Unification of Weight and Measurement
Unification of Weight and Measurement
Shang Yangs Royal/Loyal Supporter
Shang Yangs Royal/Loyal Supporter
??? Duke Xiao of Qin
??? Duke Xiao of Qin
Posters The Great Qin Empire More brotherlike
Posters The Great Qin Empire More brotherlike
Legalism: Rule by Law Legalists: Shang Yang; Li Si; and Han Feizi
Legalism: Rule by Law Legalists: Shang Yang; Li Si; and Han Feizi
Theoretical Rationale for Shang Yangs Reform
Theoretical Rationale for Shang Yangs Reform
Is Human Nature Good or Evil
Is Human Nature Good or Evil
Two Idioms associated with Shang Yang
Two Idioms associated with Shang Yang
Wang Xu
Wang Xu
Political Strategists
Political Strategists
Sun Bin (
Sun Bin (
The Art of War
The Art of War
Lionel Giles (1875 - 1958) http://www
Lionel Giles (1875 - 1958) http://www
???? Duke He L
???? Duke He L
Sun Wu (c
Sun Wu (c
Sun Wu & Mao Zedong Brenden Mclane, 2009
Sun Wu & Mao Zedong Brenden Mclane, 2009
Sun Bin vs
Sun Bin vs
Escape to Qi
Escape to Qi
Horse Racing
Horse Racing
Battle of Guiling 354 BC
Battle of Guiling 354 BC
Battle of Maling (342 BC) Dazhangjia Town (
Battle of Maling (342 BC) Dazhangjia Town (
Battle of Maling
Battle of Maling
The Zhanguo ce is a collection of 497 items pertaining to the Warring
The Zhanguo ce is a collection of 497 items pertaining to the Warring
Liu Xiang
Liu Xiang
Su Qin, an advocate of zong
Su Qin, an advocate of zong
?????xu
?????xu
?????? Chancellor for six states
?????? Chancellor for six states
enumeration of historical analogies Su Qins Speech to King Huiwen of
enumeration of historical analogies Su Qins Speech to King Huiwen of
Political Persuasion
Political Persuasion
Double Persuasion
Double Persuasion
Hangu Pass
Hangu Pass
Strategic Location
Strategic Location
??????
??????
Double Persuasion
Double Persuasion
Double Persuasion
Double Persuasion
It is Up to You to Decide
It is Up to You to Decide
Annotations on Double Persuasion
Annotations on Double Persuasion
Stylistic features of the Zhanguo ce Intrigues of the Warring States
Stylistic features of the Zhanguo ce Intrigues of the Warring States
Double Persuasion
Double Persuasion
Befriend a distant state while attacking a neighbour
Befriend a distant state while attacking a neighbour
The Battle of Changping April, 262 BC  July, 260 BC
The Battle of Changping April, 262 BC July, 260 BC
King Zhao Wulings Military Reform
King Zhao Wulings Military Reform
adopted a non-Han military dress code Source: Intrigues of the Warring
adopted a non-Han military dress code Source: Intrigues of the Warring
Xiongnu
Xiongnu
Battle of Changping
Battle of Changping
Trick of Sowing Discord
Trick of Sowing Discord
??? Lin Xiangru an Outstanding Diplomat
??? Lin Xiangru an Outstanding Diplomat
Keep Your Promise
Keep Your Promise
Treat me with Decency
Treat me with Decency
Meeting of Mianchi
Meeting of Mianchi
Lin Xiangru Maintained his Kings Dignity and Honor
Lin Xiangru Maintained his Kings Dignity and Honor
?????f
?????f
Four Famous Generals The Warring States Period
Four Famous Generals The Warring States Period
The State of Chu ~1030 BC223 BC~
The State of Chu ~1030 BC223 BC~
Zhang Yi
Zhang Yi
Zhang Yi
Zhang Yi
Zhang Yi Tricked King Huai of Chu
Zhang Yi Tricked King Huai of Chu
King Huai of Chu
King Huai of Chu
King Huai of Chu vs
King Huai of Chu vs
Qu Yuan (ca
Qu Yuan (ca
Chu Ci, the Songs of the South
Chu Ci, the Songs of the South
The Dragon Boat Festival
The Dragon Boat Festival
Dragon Boat Festival
Dragon Boat Festival
On Encountering Trouble http://uwch-4
On Encountering Trouble http://uwch-4
List of Chu Ci Pieces
List of Chu Ci Pieces
A poem attributed to Qu Yuan and published in the Chu Ci (
A poem attributed to Qu Yuan and published in the Chu Ci (
End of Zhou (256 BCE)
End of Zhou (256 BCE)

: pdf. : Weizhi Gao. : pdf.ppt. zip-: 2907 .

pdf

pdf.ppt
1 The Axial Age Karl Jaspers (1883 - 1969)

The Axial Age Karl Jaspers (1883 - 1969)

German philosopher Karl Jaspers coined the term the axial age to describe the period from 800 BC to 200 BC, during which, according to Jaspers, similar revolutionary thinking appeared in China, India and the Occident. The period is also sometimes referred to as the axis age.

2 Karl Theodor Jaspers (February 23, 1883  February 26, 1969)

Karl Theodor Jaspers (February 23, 1883 February 26, 1969)

was a German psychiatrist and philosopher who had a strong influence on modern theology, psychiatry and philosophy. After being trained in and practicing psychiatry, Jaspers turned to philosophical inquiry and attempted to discover an innovative philosophical system.

3 A Striking Parallel

A Striking Parallel

Jaspers, in his Vom Ursprung und Ziel der Geschichte (The Origin and Goal of History 1953), identified a number of key axial age thinkers as having had a profound influence on future philosophy and religion, and identified characteristics common to each area from which those thinkers emerged. Jaspers saw in these developments in religion and philosophy a striking parallel without any obvious direct transmission of ideas from one region to the other, having found no recorded proof of any extensive intercommunication between Ancient Greece, the Middle East, India, and China. Jaspers held up this age as unique, and one to which the rest of the history of human thought might be compared.

4 Hundred Schools of Thought

Hundred Schools of Thought

??? zh?z? b?iji?

The term that literally means "all philosophers, hundred schools refers to philosophers and schools that flourished from 770 to 221 B.C.E., an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion. It is also known as the Golden Age of Chinese philosophy because a broad range of thoughts and ideas were developed and discussed freely. This phenomenon has been called the Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought (???? b?iji? zh?ngm?ng). Professor David R. Knechtges prefers a different term: Masters instead of philosophers. The word hundred seems exaggerated. Nevertheless, it is the golden age in Chinese intellectual history. However, since the Han synthesis, Confucianism has gained its dominant position.

5 Jixia Academy: Athens in China in the State of Qi

Jixia Academy: Athens in China in the State of Qi

The Jixia Academy or Academy of the Gate of Qi/Chi-- ???? was the most famous scholarly academy of early China. It was founded around 318 BC in the city of Linzi ??, capital of the state of Qi (modern Shandong province), and Jixia was a gate in the city wall. At the time, Linzi was one of the largest, most prosperous cities in the world. For the first time on record a state began to act as a patron of scholarship out of the apparent conviction that this was a proper function of the state or a means of increasing its prestige. Scholars came from great distances to lodge in the academy, with the most important scholar holding the rank of Great Prefect.

6 Pre-Qin (221 BC) Prose Writing Historical Prose & Philosophical Prose

Pre-Qin (221 BC) Prose Writing Historical Prose & Philosophical Prose

1. ???sh?ngsh?? Classic of History "Classic of History", "Classic of Documents", "Book of History", "Book of Documents". 2. ???ch?nqi?? the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B.C.); The Spring and Autumn Annals; annals; history-- is the official chronicle of the State of Lu covering the period from 722 BCE to 481 BCE. Intrigues of the Warring States 3. ????Zh?ngu? C?? Intrigues/Strategies of the Warring States 4. Zuo Zhuan--the Commentary of Zuo, 389 BC

Zi , ancient title of respect for learned or virtuous man, masters. Confucianism: The Analects (put together by his students); Mencius by Mengzi and Xunzi; Daoism: Dao De Jing and Zhuanzi/Liezi Legalism: Shang Yang, Li Si, and Han Fei Mohism by Mozi Philosophical Military Treatise: The Art of War by Sunzi

7 The Warring States Period 403 BCE to 256 BCE Partition of the Jin

The Warring States Period 403 BCE to 256 BCE Partition of the Jin

State (403 BC)

8 Political Hierarchy Defined by Rites/Rituals of the Zhou Dynasty

Political Hierarchy Defined by Rites/Rituals of the Zhou Dynasty

Son of Heaven = Emperor duke, in charge of a state marquis; a nobleman or high official; Ministers http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/marquis?s=t If an emperor couldnt go to Mt. Tai, he had to build a temple; The Temple of Heaven in Beijing serves such a function;

Only a son of heaven can own nine ding, sacred cauldrons, symbolic of status; At court, only a son of heaven can order 64 dancing girls, 8 per row/per line; Who are qualified to go to Mt. Tai to perform feng and shan sacrificial ceremonies?

9 During Duke of Yous (

During Duke of Yous (

??) r. 433 to 416 BC

Three ministers or houses, Zhao, Han and Wei started to divide some territory. In 416, Marquis Wen of Wei ??? killed Duke of You.

10 Marquess Wen of Wei

Marquess Wen of Wei

?? (??396 BC)

Wei became rich by controlling salt. (capital of salt industry, ??). Along with its salt business, Wei established a strong army. A well-learned man

11 Three Households/Ministers Divided the State of Jin Duke Lie of Jin

Three Households/Ministers Divided the State of Jin Duke Lie of Jin

?? 415 BC - 389 BC

In about 401, Zhi Boyao ???, a senior minister who became the Secretary of the State, demanded more land from other ministers: Wei Zi ??, Zhao Ji ?? and Han Qian ??. Duke of Lie could not control his state at all. Wei and Han bowed to Zhi, but Zhao refused.

12 Zhi Attacking Zhao A Dramatic Turn

Zhi Attacking Zhao A Dramatic Turn

Zhi led the mid-army; Wei led the left army; Han led the right army; Three armies surrounded Jin Yang ?? for two years. Zhi used water (River Jin) as soldiers ???? and had Jin Yang flooded. ?????????: the rock he lad lifted landed on his own feet. To plan to make somebody else miserable but end up getting hurt themselves.

Jin Yang was in great danger. Zhao appealed to Wei and Han. When boasting about his strategy on the bank of River Jin, it dawned on Wei and Han that they can use the same trick. Teamed up with Zhao, they let go the water from a branch of River Jin, thus had Zhis territory flooded. Zhi ??? was killed during the battle. In 403, Wei, Zhao, and Han went to see the king of Zhou, demanding the status of a state. The new status was officially granted. This incident marked the beginning of the Warring States Period.

13 What Shifted the Power Structure at a Critical Moment

What Shifted the Power Structure at a Critical Moment

Power of Rhetoric

Zhao Xiangzi or Zhao Ji convinced Wei and Han that if they dont stick together, the Zhi family will swallow them one by one sooner or later.

???? ?ch?nw?ngch?h?n? if the lips are gone, the teeth will be cold; if one (of two interdependent things) falls, the other is in danger; share a common lot.

14 Potential Danger in the Partition of the Jin http://www

Potential Danger in the Partition of the Jin http://www

globaled.org/chinaproject/confucian/quotes1.html

Fragmentation vs. Unification Lessons from Russia China is in chaos. What is the best for China: united or divided? If China were fragmented, what would be its impact on the world? After the First Opium War in 1842, China was divided by invaders from the outside. Partition of China

How to maintain order? Contextualize the significance of Confucianism in China Impact of family structure and individual conduct on government/nation Confucius cites The Book of Document, Simply by being a good son and friendly to his brothers a man can exert an influence upon government (The Analects 2.21). Returning of a shopping cart

15 Guiguzi & Shang Yang Two Consequential Figures

Guiguzi & Shang Yang Two Consequential Figures

16 Shang Yang Reform ca

Shang Yang Reform ca

390-338 BC

a Chinese statesman and political philosopher. He was one of the founders of Chinese Legalism and organized the rise to power of the Ch'in dynasty. The first reform: 359 BC; The second reform: 350 BC;

17 Content of Shang Yangs Reform

Content of Shang Yangs Reform

Establish the county system--31 total for a stronger centralized government; county magistrates are appointed directly by the central government; Household Registration system and chain punishment to tighten the leash; Grown up sons must live independently, which enlarged the population for tax purpose;

18 Land Reform

Land Reform

His most famous economic reform was the abolition of the idealized system of landholding known as the "well-field system," in which a section of land was divided into nine portions, tilled by eight families in common, with the produce from the ninth portion reserved for the overlord--??? ?f?ij?ngti?n?

????k?iqi?nm?? crisscross footpaths between fields. Basically get rid of boundaries, carrying out private-ownership by commoners. This is a further development in Guan Zhongs land reform; Private ownership marks a break from that of the Zhou Dynasty in which ??? ?f?nf?ngzh?? the system of enfeoffment dominated, (of the Western Zhou Dynasty, c.11th. century-771 B.C., investing the nobility with hereditary titles, territories and slaves).

19 ???? ?

???? ?

?? ?zh?ngn?ngq?ngsh?ng l?iz? sh?ngy?ng ?

Central to Shang Yang's economic theory was an over-whelming emphasis on agriculture and a rejection of "nonessential" activities such as commerce and manufacturing. He proposed that anyone engaging in secondary professions be sold as slaves; different from Guan Zhongs model. In ancient China, merchants and businessmen suffered a bad reputation. Nowadays, many college students flood into business schools

20 Double-Edged Military Reform

Double-Edged Military Reform

Establish a 20-rank military system on the one hand, and on the other hand, eliminate the old tenure system (which fundamentally challenged those princes). ??q?? cut ear off to claim credit The goal is to set up more centralized government.

???????????????????????????????? According to Han shu or Book of Han, Shang code regulates that someone could be promoted by one rank for one chopped-off head in battle or promoted as a minor officer whose salary is 50 shi of grain; a unit of dry measure for grain (?1 hectolitre)

21 Shang Yangs Legal Code Appeal lies in Equality

Shang Yangs Legal Code Appeal lies in Equality

Central to Shang Yangs new law is equality by which a prince be punished the same way as a commoner. ????????? a prince who commits a crime will be punished the same way as commoners. Once the crown prince Ying Si ?? or Zhao Si ?? committed a crimehe killed someone (during a tax season when some cheating was involved), he was sent to an exile; and his teachers Ying Qian and Gongsun Jia was punished by ???y?x?ng? ??y?? cutting off the nose (a punishment in ancient China)

22 Ying Si vs

Ying Si vs

Shang Yang

Ying Si ?? was the son of Duke Xiao ???, and succeeded his father as ruler of Qin after the latter's death. When Ying was still in his adolescent years as the crown prince, he committed a crime and was severely punished for it. Shang Yang was implementing his reforms to the laws of Qin then, and he insisted that the crown prince should be punished for the crime, regardless of his royal status. Duke Xiao approved of the draconian punishments and Ying Si's tutors, Prince Ying Qian and Gongsun Jia, had their noses cut off, for neglecting their duties in educating the crown prince, while Ying Si was banished from the royal palace.

23 Shang Yang, a Chinese Draco

Shang Yang, a Chinese Draco

It was believed that Ying Si harbored a personal grudge against Shang Yang and when he came to the throne as King Huiwen of Qin, Ying Si had Shang Yang put to death on charges of treason. However, King Huiwen retained the reformed systems in Qin left behind by his father and Shang Yang.

24 Draconian punishments

Draconian punishments

adjective 1.of, pertaining to, or characteristic of Draco or his code of laws. 2.(often lowercase ) rigorous; unusually severe or cruel: Draconian forms of punishment. Draco (pronounced /?dre?.ko?/; from Greek ??????, pronounced [?dra.k??n]) was the first legislator of ancient Athens, Greece, 7th century BC. He replaced the prevailing system of oral law and blood feud by a written code to be enforced only by a court. Because of its harshness, this code also gave rise to the term "draconian".

25 Unified Ideology

Unified Ideology

??????????? Books burning per Qins Legal Code; As a result, Qin, either as a state or as an empire, did not leave much literature behind; the landscape is barren. It is a cultural wasteland.

26 Unification of Weight and Measurement

Unification of Weight and Measurement

Unification in weight and measurement, which paved the way for later regulations standardized by Qinshihuang, the first emperor in China.

27 Shang Yangs Royal/Loyal Supporter

Shang Yangs Royal/Loyal Supporter

??Duke Xiao of Qin (381 BC - 338 BC)

Duke Xiao is best known for employing the Legalist statesman Shang Yang from the Wei state (?), and authorizing him to conduct a series of upheaving political, military and economic reforms in Qin. Although the reforms were potentially controversial and drew violent opposition from many Qin politicians, Duke Xiao supported Shang Yang fully and the reforms did helped to transform Qin into a dominant superpower among the Seven Warring States.

28 ??? Duke Xiao of Qin

??? Duke Xiao of Qin

In a recent TV series, The Great Qin Empire, Duke Xiao of Qin is depicted more like a brother to Shang Yang than a king.

29 Posters The Great Qin Empire More brotherlike

Posters The Great Qin Empire More brotherlike

30 Legalism: Rule by Law Legalists: Shang Yang; Li Si; and Han Feizi

Legalism: Rule by Law Legalists: Shang Yang; Li Si; and Han Feizi

Legalism was a system that proved to be quite effective in gaining power but was problematic for establishing a stable political power. The doctrine of Legalism originated in the practical political operations of the State of Qin. In the 3rd century BCE, the philosopher Han Fei developed an intellectual rationale for Legalism. Han Fei argues that people need careful guidance by strong rulers to live in an orderly society. The Qin State, with Legalism as its ideology, succeeded in ending the Warring States era.

31 Theoretical Rationale for Shang Yangs Reform

Theoretical Rationale for Shang Yangs Reform

The prime minister of Qin in the mid-4th century BCE was Shang Yang who set out the basic ideas of Legalism. The central principle of Legalism was the use of rewards and punishments to produce conformity to the rule of clear and well-developed laws. The law was to be applied uniformly and strictly to both high and low so that everyone understood their duties and knew the penalties for failing to fulfill them.

32 Is Human Nature Good or Evil

Is Human Nature Good or Evil

Implicit or explicit behind Shang Yangs model of rewards and punishments lies a crucial question regarding whether human nature is good or evil. Xunzi or Xun Kuang: Human Nature is Evil; the essay is uploaded online on our class website; (See Xun Kuang ppts) Mencius: Human nature is good

33 Two Idioms associated with Shang Yang

Two Idioms associated with Shang Yang

???? ?zu?f?z?b?? make a law only to fall foul of it oneself; be hoist with or by one's own petard; get caught in one's own trap. Right after Duke Xiao of Qin passed away, Shang Yang tried to escape. He could not even check into a hotel without an ID, a law made by himself; ???ch?li?? tearing a person asunder by horse-drawn chariots going in five directions.

???? ? x?m?w?ix?n ? Before the new law was promulgated, A three-yard pole to be moved from the south gate to the north gate for 50 gold piecesto establish credibility Shiji 68: The Biography of Lord Shang See Burton Watsons translation: The Record of the Grand Historian, Qin Dynasty published by Columbia University Press, page 93

34 Wang Xu

Wang Xu

?, better known by his pseudonym Guiguzi ???

A philosopher from the Warring States Period. He was the founder of the School of Diplomacy of the Hundred Schools of Thought during that period. According to popular belief, Guiguzi was a master of politics, diplomacy, military strategy and fortune-telling. Guiguzi was born in Gui Valley (??) in present-day Dengfeng County, Henan province. As the pronunciation of the Chinese character of "?" (meaning: return) is quite similar to "?" (meaning: ghost; demon), Guiguzi's birthplace was hence popularly referred to as "Guigu" (??; Ghost Valley or Demon Valley).

35 Political Strategists

Political Strategists

The earliest records of Guiguzi were found in historian Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Scribes/Historian, in which it was stated that Guiguzi was the teacher of famous diplomats, statesmen and military strategists, including Su Qin, Zhang Yi, Sun Bin and Pang Juan.

????z?ngh?ngji?? Political Strategists (in the Warring States Period, 475-221 B.C.) . ???z?ngh?ng? in length and breadth; vertically and horizontally; ???j?ngw?i? warp and woof; longitude and latitude;

36 Sun Bin (

Sun Bin (

- 316 BC)

was a military strategist who lived during the Warring States Period. An alleged descendant of Sun Tzu, Sun Bin was tutored in military strategy by the hermit Guiguzi.

37 The Art of War

The Art of War

??? Required Reading of MBAs in US http://www.chinapage.com/sunzi-e.html

The Art of War is a Chinese military treatise that was written by Sun Tzu in the 6th century BC, during the Spring and Autumn period. Composed of 13 chapters, each of which is devoted to one aspect of warfare. See the text online

38 Lionel Giles (1875 - 1958) http://www

Lionel Giles (1875 - 1958) http://www

chinapage.com/sunzi-e.html

a Victorian scholar, translator and the son of British diplomat and sinologist, Herbert Giles. Lionel Giles served as assistant curator at the British Museum and Keeper of the Department of Oriental Manuscripts and Printed Books. Lionel Giles is most notable for his 1910 translation of The Art of War by Sun Tzu and The Analects of Confucius.

39 ???? Duke He L

???? Duke He L

of Wu ???496 BC?

in 515 BC the prince ascended the throne of Wu and became King Hel?. The king assigned Wu Zixu ??? to lead the design and building of the "great city," which evolved into the city of Suzhou today. ????,?????sh?ngy?uti?nt?ng,xi?y?us?h?ng? Just as there is paradise in heaven, there are Suzhou and Hangzhou on earth. In 506 BC Hel? with the help of Wu Zixu and Sun-tzu, the author of The Art of War, launched major offensives against the state of Chu. They prevailed in five battles, one of which was the Battle of Boju ???? 506 BCE) , and conquered the capital of Ying (Chinese: ?).

40 Sun Wu (c

Sun Wu (c

544 BC - c. 496 BC)

An anecdote goes as follows: The king of Wu tested Sun Tzu's skills by commanding him to train a harem of 180 concubines into soldiers. Sun Tzu divided them into two companies ? , appointing the two concubines most favored by the king as the company commanders ??. When Sun Tzu first ordered the concubines to face right, they giggled. In response, Sun Tzu said that the general, in this case himself, was responsible for ensuring that soldiers understand the commands. Then, he reiterated the order, and again the concubines giggled. Sun Tzu then ordered the execution of the king's two favored concubines, to the king's protests.

41 Sun Wu & Mao Zedong Brenden Mclane, 2009

Sun Wu & Mao Zedong Brenden Mclane, 2009

The Art of Wars most governing principles were as follows: first, know yourself, your enemy, and the situation in which you must fight; second: fight only if you absolutely must; third, speed, decisive action, and discipline are what win battles, not force. These three general ideas form the basic framework for the way of war know as guerilla warfare ????y?uj?zh?n? bushwhacking..

42 Sun Bin vs

Sun Bin vs

Pang Juan Both Studied with Guiguzi

Sun Bin (?- 316 BC) memorized The Art of War; Sworn Brothers; Upon his departure, Guiguzi gave Sun Bin a slip of paper; In State of Wei, Pang Juan tricked Sun Bin and had his kneecaps removed/feet cut off and had his face tattooed;

43 Escape to Qi

Escape to Qi

In jail, Sun Bin tried to write down The Art of War for Pang Juan; A servant revealed the true intention of Pang Juan; Sun Bin feigned madness as Hamlet did, which was the strategy from his teacher as the last resort; Sun Bin escaped to the State of Qi

44 Horse Racing

Horse Racing

??? Deliberate Mismatch in Competition

Sun Bins friend Tian Ji, a general in Qi, loved horse racing, but he always lost the game. Sun Bins advice: Third class horse vs. Duke Qis best horse; First class horse vs. Duke Qis second class horse; Second class horse vs. Duke Qis third class horse; Tian Ji won 1000 pieces of gold;

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?? ?????????????????? ????????????????????

45 Battle of Guiling 354 BC

Battle of Guiling 354 BC

???? ?w?iW?iji?Zh?o? besiege Wei to rescue Zhao - relieve the besieged by besieging the base of the besiegers. Marshaled by Pang Juan, Wei attacked Zhao. Zhaos capital Han Dan was in great danger. Instead of going directly to Han Dan, which will exhaust Qis troops, Sun Bin suggested Qi attack Weis capital Daliang (now Kaifeng, Henan Province); On his way back to the capital, Pang Juan was ambushed by Qis troops; Pang Juan was caught alive!

46 Battle of Maling (342 BC) Dazhangjia Town (

Battle of Maling (342 BC) Dazhangjia Town (

???), Xin County (??), Henan Province

In 342, Pang Juan attacked the State of Han (403 BC230 BC). Sun Bin suggested Qis troops wait till both sides got exhausted. After 5 rounds of bloody fighting, Qi sent its troops to Hans capital (now Yuzhou). Qis troops pretended defeated and escaped; en route, they reduced the number of camp fires for cooking for bivouac (French) , a way to estimate how many troops involved. At Maling, a valley like a long sack, Pang Juan was ambushed.

????????????????????????????? 342???????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????

47 Battle of Maling

Battle of Maling

48 The Zhanguo ce is a collection of 497 items pertaining to the Warring

The Zhanguo ce is a collection of 497 items pertaining to the Warring

States Period. Most are short fables, speeches put in the mouths of historical figures, and anecdotes. The present version is based on an edition prepared by Liu Xiang ?? (ca.79-ca. BC), who selected from six different collections of Warring States stories and speeches that allegedly were derived from the actual words of youshui ?? (traveling persuaders).

Intrigues of the Warring States ????Zh?ngu?c?? One Origin for the Warring States (403-221 B.C.)

49 Liu Xiang

Liu Xiang

? (ca.79-ca. BC)

born Liu Gengsheng (???), courtesy name Zizheng (??), was a famous Confucian scholar of the Han Dynasty. He was born in Xuzhou ?? (known as Pengcheng ?? in ancient times) and related to Liu Bang ??, the founder of the Han dynasty. His son, Liu Xin, developed the "Triple Concordance" ?????? astronomical system.

50 Su Qin, an advocate of zong

Su Qin, an advocate of zong

, or Confederation against the Qin State

Su Qin (380-284 BCE), was an influential political strategist during the Warring States Period. He was born in Chengxuan Village, Luoyang in present day Henan Province. According to some legend, Su Qin was a disciple of Gui Guzi (???), the founder of the School of Diplomacy or strategists ???. One theory of this school, Vertical Alliance or confederation , promoted an alliance of the other states against the state of Qin. The opposing theory, Horizontal Alliance ?? supported an alliance with the State of Qin.

51 ?????xu

?????xu

nli?ngc?g?? tie one's hair to a beam to keep from dozing off, or prod/prick in the thigh with an awlstudy assiduously

??????????????????????? In Western Han, someone called Sun Jing ???????????????????This refers to Su Qin They both got humiliated previously.

52 ?????? Chancellor for six states

?????? Chancellor for six states

How persuasive he is? Check this out: Su Qins speech to King Huiwen of Qin (Zhanguo ce, Sbby, 3.2a-3a) Read Double Persuasion online.

53 enumeration of historical analogies Su Qins Speech to King Huiwen of

enumeration of historical analogies Su Qins Speech to King Huiwen of

Qin ??? 356? 310 BCE

In the past Shennong attacked the Bushui?? , The Yellow Lord attacked Zhuolu ?? and captured Chiyou ?? , Yao attacked Huandou ?? , Shun attached the Three Miao?? , Yu (Shun) ?? attacked Gonggong ?? , Tang ?? attacked the Xia , Wen ??? attacked Chong ??? , King Wu ??? attacked Zhou ?? , Duke Huan of Qi ??? employed warfare to become hegemon of the empire. Looking at it from this point of view, One might ask, who has not gone to war? Note The king did not hire Su Qin after all.

54 Political Persuasion

Political Persuasion

Most early Chinese rhetoric is concerned with political persuasion and usually involves an official who attempts to persuade his ruler of the merits of a particular proposal or action. The best collection is the Zhanguo ce. (James Crumps book-- Legend of the Warring States: Persuasion, Romances, and Stories from the Chan-kuo tse. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan, 1998) See the table of contents, consult the English version by Bramwell Seaton Bonsall at http://lib.hku.hk/bonsall/zhanguoce/index1.html

55 Double Persuasion

Double Persuasion

The Three States attacked Qin and entered Hangu Pass ???. The king of Qin( the King Zhao of Qin, r. 325-251 BCE) said to Lou Huan?? , The troops of the Three States have deeply penetrated our territory. I wish to cede Hedong and negotiate with them. Lou Huan replied, To cede Hedong would be a great waste. To escape disaster to our state would be a great benefit. This is the responsibility of the elders. Why does not Your Majesty summon Gongzi Chi??? and ask him about it?

56 Hangu Pass

Hangu Pass

Hangu Pass ??? was a strategic pass in ancient China just south of the great eastern bend of the Yellow River in today's Lingbao County, Henan Province. The State of Qin built the pass in 361 BC as its eastern gate. Because of its strategic location between the ancient lands of the State of Qin and the central plains of China, many famous ancient battles were fought at Hangu Pass. During the Warring States Period, Hangu Pass was heavily defended by the State of Qin, as the pass was the only reasonable route to invade the State of Qin from the central plains of China. Hangu Pass was also a vital route in invading the ancient capital of Luoyang from the west. According to legend, Lao Zi supposedly wrote the Dao De Jing at Hangu Pass.

57 Strategic Location

Strategic Location

?????y?f?d?nggu?n? one strong man stand in the way full of valor and vigor.? ?????w?nf?m?k?i? even 10,000 men can not break through; unbreakable.

58 ??????

??????

? ????

The Qin army opened the pass to meet the enemy, yet the troops of the nine states, hesitant to move forward, dared not enter Jia Yis The Faults of Qin

59 Double Persuasion

Double Persuasion

The king summoned Gongzi Chi and asked him about it. He replied, If you negotiate with them, you will regret it. If you dont negotiate with them, you will regret it. What do you mean? Gongzi Chi replied, When Your Majesty has ceded Hedong and negotiated, even though the Three States have departed, you will certainly say, Too bad! The Three States were about to depart, and I simply accommodated them with three cities. This is what you would regret about negotiating.

60 Double Persuasion

Double Persuasion

If you do negotiate, and the three States enter Hangu Pass, Xiangyang will certainly be in danger. Your Majesty will say, Too bad! I begrudged three cities and did not negotiate. This is what you would regret about not negotiating. The king said, The regret is equal in both cases. I would rather lose three cities and regret it than endanger Xiangyang and regret that. I have decided to negotiate. In the end, the king sent Gongzi Chi to use the three cities to negotiate with the Three States. They withdrew their troops. Zhanguo ce 6.1 b-2a.

61 It is Up to You to Decide

It is Up to You to Decide

The argument in which the persuader juxtaposes both pro and con alternatives is similar to a mode of persuasion used in later Chinese literature in which the writer gives the appearance of ambivalence on which course of action he actually favors, and leaves it to the reader or listener to choose between the alternatives. This ambiguity of purpose often seems to be deliberate, and perhaps is an attempt to give the impression that all possibilities have been explored and that there is a choice between alternatives. The person thus is led to the desired conclusion not by direct admonition, but through indirect suggestion, and this technique becomes a principal form of suasion. See a sample here.

62 Annotations on Double Persuasion

Annotations on Double Persuasion

Three states that attacked the State of Qin refer to Qi, Han and Wei. This happened around 297 BCE; The king of Qin refers to the King Zhao of Qin (r. 325-251 BCE) Gongzi Chi, son of the King Hui of Qin, was the highest military leader, equivalent to the president of the military committee;

63 Stylistic features of the Zhanguo ce Intrigues of the Warring States

Stylistic features of the Zhanguo ce Intrigues of the Warring States

The enumeration of historical analogies is the most common device of Chinese suasive discourse. Toward the end of the speech, the persuader uses the repetition scheme known as expolitio, which involves the repetition of synonyms in adjacent lines. See the ending of Su Qins speech in Double Persuasion. expolitio ex-po-li'-ti-o Latin, "adorning, embellishing" refining One of the most common rhetorical techniques of the Zhanguo ce persuasion is what James I. Crump has called the double persuasion. http://www.sino-platonic.org/complete/spp041_zhanguoce_intrigues.pdf

64 Double Persuasion

Double Persuasion

Double persuasion is the Chinese equivalent to the general topic of classical Western rhetoric and assumes several different forms. Its basic feature is the presentation of alternative or contraries that appear equally persuasive, either in a negative or positive way.

65 Befriend a distant state while attacking a neighbour

Befriend a distant state while attacking a neighbour

??? (No. 23 out of the Thirty-Six Stratagems)

In the latter half of the Warring States, King Zhaoxiang of Qin ???? or ???) (324 BC 250 BC) or King Zhao of Qin adopted a strategy by Fan Zhui ??, his chancellor. The strategy destroyed the alliance among the six states. In 260 BC, King Zhao won the vital Battle of Changping against the State of Zhao.

66 The Battle of Changping April, 262 BC  July, 260 BC

The Battle of Changping April, 262 BC July, 260 BC

Northwest of Gaoping, Shanxi The Battle of Changping (? ???) in 260 BC was a military campaign that resulted in the decisive victory of the state of Qin of China over Zhao during the Warring States Period. Even by today's standards it is one of the most lethal military operations in history. A great majority of the Zhao soldiers (400,000) were executed or buried alive after the battle.

67 King Zhao Wulings Military Reform

King Zhao Wulings Military Reform

??????? 302 BC/Textbook 31

The State of Zhao (403 BC222 BC) at the moment was a superpower. During the reign of King Wuling, the kingdom adopted a military reform. The soldiers of Zhao were ordered to dress like their Xiongnu (the Huns, including Mongols and Turks) neighbors and replace war chariots with cavalry archers. This proved to be a brilliant reform, along with advanced technology of the Chinese states and nomadic tactics, the Cavalry of Zhao became a significant force to reckon with in the warring states.

68 adopted a non-Han military dress code Source: Intrigues of the Warring

adopted a non-Han military dress code Source: Intrigues of the Warring

States

Traditionally, foot soldiers or infantry functioned as the main force; The new structure is a combination of cavalry (crossbow) archers. The Reform attracted many criticisms since it called into question of Zhaos identity. King Wuling persuaded his people by taking the lead

69 Xiongnu

Xiongnu

???xi?ngn?? Xiongnu (Hun), an ancient nationality in China. ??h?? non-Han nationalities living in the north and west in ancient times; introduced from the northern and western nationalities or from abroad;

70 Battle of Changping

Battle of Changping

Qin attacked Han; County of Shangdang ?? (now city of Zhangzhi, Shanxi Province) refuse to surrender. Duke Huanhui of Han then offered the place to the State of Zhao as leverage against the Qin State; Zhao took over the responsibility; Zhaos best general Lian Po ?? was on the defense, which in the long run will exhaust Qin army.

71 Trick of Sowing Discord

Trick of Sowing Discord

Qin spread the rumor that Lian Po is a coward and that he will surrender before long; it is Zhao Kuo ?? that Qin truly worries, etc.; Duke of Zhao was displeased with Lian Pos performance; At a critical moment, Zhao Kuo replaced Lian Po, a big mistake. The Battle of Changping marks a turning point; Ever since then, nobody could match the Qin army;

72 ??? Lin Xiangru an Outstanding Diplomat

??? Lin Xiangru an Outstanding Diplomat

Zhao received a piece of rare jade from Chu (via marriage). Qin offered a trade of 15 cities. Lin Xiangru went to Qin with the treasure Qin did not mention anything about cities;

???? (283 279) ?w?nb?gu?Zh?o? return the jade intact to the State of Zhao - return sth. to its owner in perfect condition.

73 Keep Your Promise

Keep Your Promise

Lin Xiangru says there is a defect in the jade that is hardly visible; He then demands Qin keep its promise otherwise he will smash himself together with the treasure;

74 Treat me with Decency

Treat me with Decency

The most formal ceremony in ancient9 MCs and high ranking officials to meet a distinguished guest;

Lin Xiangru demanded that Qin offer a decent reception in five days since his king went on a diet for five days and sent him off with a solemn ceremony. The same evening, Lin Xiangru had his assistant return to Zhao with the treasure;

75 Meeting of Mianchi

Meeting of Mianchi

??Mi?nch?? Place name - Area code: 0398, Postcode: 472400 (???)

About 280, Qin and Zhao tied in battles; In 279, a meeting was arranged to negotiate for a peace treaty since Qin wanted to focus on State of Chu at the moment; ??s?? <music> a twenty-five-stringed plucked instrument, somewhat similar to the zither. ??f?u? <formal> an amphora-like jar; <archaeology> a clay musical instrument. ? [f?u] Drum

76 Lin Xiangru Maintained his Kings Dignity and Honor

Lin Xiangru Maintained his Kings Dignity and Honor

Some Qin officials proposed, Give us 15 cities to bless our King; Lin Xiangru counterbid, how about giving us Xianyang to bless our king? Xianyang was the capital of Qin State; After this meeting, Lin Xiangru got a big promotion;

77 ?????f

?????f

j?ngq?ngzu?? proffer a birch and ask for a flogging - offer a humble apology

Chinese Birch Rod For the best effect, it should be soaked in brine; General Lian Po was displeased. He wanted to embarrass Xiangru one of these days; Xiangru still treated Lian Po with respect; Once Lian Po heard about all this, he felt ashamed; He came to apologize with a Chinese birch rod on his backThe two became the best friends ever since.

78 Four Famous Generals The Warring States Period

Four Famous Generals The Warring States Period

Bai Qi ??), (?257 BC), State of Qin, wiped out 600,000 of Zhaos troops; 300,000 of Han and Weis troops, including the Battle of Changping Wang Jian ??, State of Qin, who led the Qin army in seizing Handan, the capital city of the State of Zhao; Defeated Yan (state), Zhao (state) and Chu (state). Li Mu ??, (?229 BC? State of Zhao, guarded the frontier town, Wild Goose Gate Lian Po ??, State of Zhao, whose service was around 298266 BC?King Xiaocheng of Zhao ????(266245BC)?King Daoxiang of Zhao ???? ( 245236 BC)?

79 The State of Chu ~1030 BC223 BC~

The State of Chu ~1030 BC223 BC~

Chu (?) was a kingdom in what is now central and southern China during the Spring and Autumn period (722-402 BC) and Warring States Period (403-221 BC). Its ruling house had the surname Mi (?), and clan name Xiong (?), and originally was of the noble rank of zi, roughly comparable to a viscount. It was originally known as Jing (?) and then as Jingchu (??). At the height of its power, the Chu kingdom occupied vast areas of land, including the present-day provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Henan, Anhui and parts of Jiangsu and Jiangxi. The Chu capital was at Ying (?), around modern-day Jingzhou ?? , which is located in what is today Hubei province.

80 Zhang Yi

Zhang Yi

Zhang Yi (???-309 BC) was born in the State of Wei during the Warring States Period of China. He was an important strategist in helping Qin to break the confederation formed by Su Qin, and hence pave the way for Qin to unify China. Both Zhang Yi and Su Qin were Guiguzis students.

81 Zhang Yi

Zhang Yi

Zhang Yi was the first chancellor of the Qin State; He persuaded King Hui of Wei to offer 15 counties to Qin; In 325, Zhang Yi took over County of Shan in Henan which serves a natural barrier by the Yellow River; In 316, Zhang Yi took over Sichuan, a strategic area with huge amount of resources;

82 Zhang Yi Tricked King Huai of Chu

Zhang Yi Tricked King Huai of Chu

In 311 BCE, Qin intended to attach Qi; but Chu stood in the wayQi and Chu had a close tie; Zhang Yi met King Huai of Chu, promising 600 li (300 kilometers) of land to Chu; Chu broke its tie with Qi; When asking for the promised land, Zhang Yi sneered, 600? Do you mean 6 li? Outraged, Chu attacked Qin; but without Qis support, Chu was no equal to Qin.

83 King Huai of Chu

King Huai of Chu

King Huai of Chu (???) (Xiong Huai ??) ruled 328-299: son of King Wei. He lost to the Qin armies at the Battle of Danyang after Qin's invasion of Sichuan. Later, he was tricked and held hostage until his death by Qin.

84 King Huai of Chu vs

King Huai of Chu vs

Qu Yuan

Qu Yuan used to be a darling; some speculated on the gay issue; During Zhang Yis stay, Zhang Yi bribed the key figures such as Zi Lan, Jin Shang and the Kings concubine Zheng Xiu. While Qu Yuan warned the king to watch out for the Qin, this little clique slandered Qu Yuan; By and by, the King lost his judgment

85 Qu Yuan (ca

Qu Yuan (ca

340 BCE - 278 BCE) Topos of the World Upside Down Nine Declarations/Nine Pieces Embracing the Sand ????

They have changed white into black, Overturned up into down. The Phoenix lies in a cage, While chickens and ducks soar aloft. They mix together jade and stones, And weigh them on the same balance.

86 Chu Ci, the Songs of the South

Chu Ci, the Songs of the South

Qu Yuan (ca. 340-278 B. C.) represented the party opposed to any compromise with Qin. To Qu Yuan was attributed a body of verse unlike anything else in ancient China. These works, along with later works in the same tradition, are known as the Lyrics of Chu (Chu-Ci).

87 The Dragon Boat Festival

The Dragon Boat Festival

Although Chu Ci is an anthology of poems by many poets, Qu Yuan was doubtless its central figure. A minister in the court of King Huai of Chu, Qu Yuan advocated forming an alliance with the other states against the dominance of Qin. However, his advice was not taken and he was ostracized by other officials in court. Seeing the corruption of his colleagues and the inability of his king, Qu Yuan then exiled himself and finally committed suicide in the Miluo River when Qin defeated Chu in 278 BC. It is in remembrance of the circumstances of his death that the annual Dragon boat races are held.

88 Dragon Boat Festival

Dragon Boat Festival

89 On Encountering Trouble http://uwch-4

On Encountering Trouble http://uwch-4

humanities.washington.edu/~WG/~188/188%20Course%20Reader_2011/CR4_%20Intro%20to%20Chuci.pdf

During his days of exile, Qu Yuan is thought to have written Li Sao, his magnum opus and the centerpiece of Chu Ci. The authorship, as in many a case of ancient literature, can be neither confirmed nor denied. Written in 373 verses containing 2490 characters, Li Sao is the earliest Chinese long poem and is acclaimed as the literary representative of Qu Yuan's high moral conduct and patriotism. Jiu Ge ("Nine Songs"), also attributed to Qu Yuan, is the first example of what could be called shamanic literature in China. (See Arthur Waley, The Nine Songs: A Study of Shamanism in Ancient China.)

90 List of Chu Ci Pieces

List of Chu Ci Pieces

?; also known as Songs of the South or Songs of Chu

01 ?? LiSao On Encountering Sorrow/Trouble 02 ?? JiuGe Nine Songs 03 ?? TianWen Heavenly Questions 04 ?? JiuZhang Nine Declarations or Nine Pieces 05 ?? YuanYou Distant Journey/Far-off Journey 06 ?? BuJu Divining a Home/Divination 07 ?? YuFu The Fisherman 08 ?? JiuBian Nine Arguments/Nine Changes 09 ?? ZhaoHun Summoning the Soul 10 ?? DaZhao The Great Summons 11 ?? XiShi Sorrow for Troth Betrayed 12 ?? ZhaoYin Summoning the Hermit 13 ?? QiJian Seven Admonitions/Seven Remonstrance 14 ??AiShi Ming Lamenting Times Faet/Alas That My Lot Was Not Cast 15 ?? JiuHuai Nine Regrets 16 ?? JiuTan Nine Sighs/Nine Laments 17 ?? JiuSi Nine Longings

91 A poem attributed to Qu Yuan and published in the Chu Ci (

A poem attributed to Qu Yuan and published in the Chu Ci (

? Songs of Chu, sometimes Songs of the South). Read Yu Fu online Juxtapose Yu Fu with Canon of Shun

?? Yu Fu The Fisherman http://uwch-4.humanities.washington.edu/~WG/~188/188%20Course%20Reader_2011/CR6_The%20Fisherman.pdf

92 End of Zhou (256 BCE)

End of Zhou (256 BCE)

With the royal line broken, the power of the Zh?u court gradually diminished, and the fragmentation of the kingdom accelerated. From King P?ng's reign onwards, the Zh?u kings ruled in name only, with true power lying in the hands of regional nobles. Towards the end of the Zh?u Dynasty, the nobles did not even bother to symbolically acknowledge loyalty the J? family, declaring themselves to be independent kings. The dynasty ended in 256 BCE when the last king of Zh?u died and none of his sons proclaimed the nominal title of King of China.

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