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XML Music Notation Encoding Standards: MusicXML and MEI
XML Music Notation Encoding Standards: MusicXML and MEI
Questions
Questions
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)
Older Standards
Older Standards
MusicXML
MusicXML
MusicXML (cont
MusicXML (cont
MusicXML Support
MusicXML Support
Music Encoding Initiative (MEI)
Music Encoding Initiative (MEI)
MEI (cont
MEI (cont
Basic MEI DTD
Basic MEI DTD
MusicXML Limitations
MusicXML Limitations
MEI Limitations
MEI Limitations
Elements vs
Elements vs
Schema vs
Schema vs
Hello World in MusicXML and MEI
Hello World in MusicXML and MEI
MusicXML Example
MusicXML Example
MusicXML Example (cont
MusicXML Example (cont
MEI Example
MEI Example
Examples I Created
Examples I Created
The Future
The Future
The Future
The Future
Resources
Resources

Презентация: «XML Music Notation Encoding Standards: MusicXML and MEI». Автор: . Файл: «XML Music Notation Encoding Standards: MusicXML and MEI.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 79 КБ.

XML Music Notation Encoding Standards: MusicXML and MEI

содержание презентации «XML Music Notation Encoding Standards: MusicXML and MEI.ppt»
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1 XML Music Notation Encoding Standards: MusicXML and MEI

XML Music Notation Encoding Standards: MusicXML and MEI

Constantine Zavras

2 Questions

Questions

What is musical notation encoding? Why is it needed? Why is an XML standard needed?

3 Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)

Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)

MIDI MIDI is a format used for sending and receiving musical event information Used to display music audibly in a digital format At the basic level MIDI states: When a note starts When a note stops How loud the note is The pitch of the note Limitations MIDI encodes a single performance It can’t display visual layouts, it requires a music application It was not intended as an interchange format, but as a mechanism for sending and receiving musical event information MIDI cannot distinguish between the same note such as a C# or Db This is because it has no concept of notes, every note is an event, and it is either off or on Current notation programs have to guess at what MIDI is saying XML can represent a specific note

4 Older Standards

Older Standards

SMDL - Standard Music Description Language WEDELMUSIC XML Notation Enhanced Musical Notation Markup Language (EMNML) eXtensible Score Language (XScore) OASIS Discussion List for Music Notation XML TC Music and Lyrics Markup Language (4ML) Music Markup Language (MML) FlowML: A Format for Virtual Orchestras MusiXML IMS MUSIC-XML Project ChordML, Actos, and ChordQL XChords Notation Interchange File Format (NIFF) MusicML Musical Notation Markup Language (MNML)

5 MusicXML

MusicXML

Created by Recodare Goal To create a file format for musical representation and interchange between musical applications that would be Internet-viewable and non-binary Based off of MuseData and Humdrum The DTD was developed at the same time as the software MusicXML has become the commercial replacement for NIFF which was the XML format that was implemented in musical program such as Sibelius Used to augment specialized proprietary formats

6 MusicXML (cont

MusicXML (cont

MusicXML is available under a royalty-free license modeled on W3C MusicXML 2.0 is currently in beta test This version will expand MusicXML's focus from being an interchange format to being a distribution format for digital sheet music

7 MusicXML Support

MusicXML Support

Finale Sibelius Dolet SharpEye Notion TabEdit Guitar Pro

8 Music Encoding Initiative (MEI)

Music Encoding Initiative (MEI)

Developed and updated by Perry Roland, a researcher at the University of Virginia’s Digital Library project. Goals Create a framework for the encoding of music data Enable content-based searching, analysis, visual presentation, etc. MEI supports a large array of forms in which music exists (logical, visual, performance, and analytical). MEI can ignore information it does not need Noncommercial

9 MEI (cont

MEI (cont

MEI utilizes a number of existing standards, both XML and not. The metadata of the DTD - TEI and Dublin Core. Pitch attribute names - Acoustical Society of America (ASA) Performance data - MIDI

10 Basic MEI DTD

Basic MEI DTD

<!ELEMENT mei (meihead, work)> <!ELEMENT meicorpus (meihead, mei+)> <!ELEMENT meihead (meiid, filedesc, projectdesc?, editorialdecl?, profiledesc?, revisiondesc?, sourcedesc*)> <!ELEMENT work (front?, (music|group), back?)> <!ELEMENT group ((work|group), (work|group)*)> <!ELEMENT music (mdiv+)> <!ELEMENT mdiv (score?, parts?)> <!ELEMENT score (div*, (section, ending*, div*)* | (measure?, (pb|sb)?)*)> <!ELEMENT parts (part)+> <!ELEMENT part (div*, (section, ending*, div*)* | (measure?, (pb|sb)?)*)> <!ELEMENT section (div*, (section, ending*, div*)* | (measure?, (pb|sb)?)* | staff* | app*)> <!ELEMENT app (rdg, rdg+)> <!ELEMENT rdg (div*, (section, ending*, div*)* | (measure?,(pb|sb)?)* | staff* | app*)> <!ELEMENT ending (div*, (section, ending*, div*)* | (measure?,(pb|sb)?)* | staff* | app*)> <!ELEMENT measure (((staff* | (beam | beatrpt | btrem | chord | ftrem | note | pad | rest | space | tuplet)* | layer* | (msrest | msrpt | multirest | multirpt)?)), ossia*, (annot | arpeg | beam2 | bend | dir | dynam | gliss | hairpin | harm | lyrics | midi | mordent | octave | pedal | phrase | reh | slur | tempo | tie | trill | turn)*, (curve | line | symbol )*)>

11 MusicXML Limitations

MusicXML Limitations

MusicXML is adequate, not optimal, for diverse music applications Problems exist when reading certain rhythms composed in MusicXML by Finale and Sibelius, especially with tuplets Very long files

12 MEI Limitations

MEI Limitations

Does not have the backing of a commercial endeavor. Not as human readable as MusicXML MusicXML - <octave>2</octave> MEI - <oct =”2”>

13 Elements vs

Elements vs

Attributes

MusicXML Elements – Logical Domains Attributes – Visual and Performance Domains “Terseness is of minimal importance” Constantly being updated, elements make the update process easier MEI Attributes – Logical Domains Elements – Performance Domains Smaller Files Attributes can be constrained by type and value, as well as defaulted values, very useful in music

14 Schema vs

Schema vs

DTD

Both MusicXML and MEI use DTD’s MEI has a few competing schema proposals that are not operable

15 Hello World in MusicXML and MEI

Hello World in MusicXML and MEI

MusicXML Hello World MEI Hello World

16 MusicXML Example

MusicXML Example

<measure number="1"> <attributes> <divisions>24</divisions> <key> <fifths>-3</fifths> <mode>major</mode> </key> <time> <beats>3</beats> <beat-type>4</beat-type> </time> <clef> <sign>G</sign> <line>2</line> </clef> </attributes>

17 MusicXML Example (cont

MusicXML Example (cont

<note> <pitch> <step>B</step> <alter>-1</alter> <octave>4</octave> </pitch> <duration>24</duration> <voice>1</voice> <type>quarter</type> <stem>down</stem> <lyric number="1"> <syllabic>single</syllabic> <text>Auf</text> </lyric> </note> </measure>

18 MEI Example

MEI Example

<bar n="1"> <staff id="s1"> <voice id="s1v1"> <note pname="b" acci="f" oct="4" dur="4" /> </voice> </staff> </bar>

19 Examples I Created

Examples I Created

Trumpet Score-Part MusicXML MEI – Couldn’t get the transformation to work

20 The Future

The Future

MEI XSL Transformation from MusicXML MEI Transformation Sheet 1 MEI Transformation Sheet 2

21 The Future

The Future

Common Western Musical Notation (CWMN) Music from any time period before the 17th century is impossible to encode with the standards that exist now. Both MEI and MusicXML have stated that they stay within the bounds of CWMN in order to not overextend their limits. May be possible to do this in the future, or develop new standards based on existing ones to incorporate other forms of notation into XML. Potential for expansion Music analysis tools, which MEI has some operability in Ability to sequence music with no external software beyond a text editor. Music players written in Flash and Java Can read MusicXML or MEI and play the result online Convert to MIDI Create playlists Encode in MPEG

22 Resources

Resources

http://xml.coverpages.org/xmlMusic.html http://www.musicxml.org/ http://www.lib.virginia.edu/digital/resndev/mei/

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