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Welcome to 6.007 – Applied Electromagnetics From Motors to Lasers What
Welcome to 6.007 – Applied Electromagnetics From Motors to Lasers What
iPhone Technical Specifications Operating System: OS X Memory: 4gb or
iPhone Technical Specifications Operating System: OS X Memory: 4gb or
E
E
Capacitors in the iPhone
Capacitors in the iPhone
E
E
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Touch Panel
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Touch Panel
Accelerometers
Accelerometers
Accelerometer
Accelerometer
Accelerometers are Everywhere
Accelerometers are Everywhere
Capacitors in the iPhone
Capacitors in the iPhone
Liquid Crystal Displays
Liquid Crystal Displays
E
E
Nexus One: Organic LED Display
Nexus One: Organic LED Display
CMOS Photodiode Imagers
CMOS Photodiode Imagers
CMOS Photodiode Imagers
CMOS Photodiode Imagers
CMOS Imagers: Color Filters
CMOS Imagers: Color Filters
Capacitors in the iPhone
Capacitors in the iPhone
MOSFET: Transistor in a Nutshell
MOSFET: Transistor in a Nutshell
Erased ‘1’
Erased ‘1’
Capacitors in the iPhone
Capacitors in the iPhone
Capacitors in the iPhone
Capacitors in the iPhone
Three Big Ideas in 6.007
Three Big Ideas in 6.007
iPhone Components
iPhone Components
iPhone Components
iPhone Components
Inductors in the iPhone
Inductors in the iPhone
Magnetometers
Magnetometers
Course Details
Course Details
Energy Conversion in the iPhone
Energy Conversion in the iPhone
Energy Conversion in the iPhone
Energy Conversion in the iPhone
Good Engineers …
Good Engineers …
6.007 Electromagnetic Energy: From Motors to Lasers
6.007 Electromagnetic Energy: From Motors to Lasers

Презентация на тему: «Welcome to 6.007 – Applied Electromagnetics From Motors to Lasers». Автор: Vladimir Bulovic. Файл: «Welcome to 6.007 – Applied Electromagnetics From Motors to Lasers.pptx». Размер zip-архива: 3226 КБ.

Welcome to 6.007 – Applied Electromagnetics From Motors to Lasers

содержание презентации «Welcome to 6.007 – Applied Electromagnetics From Motors to Lasers.pptx»
СлайдТекст
1 Welcome to 6.007 – Applied Electromagnetics From Motors to Lasers What

Welcome to 6.007 – Applied Electromagnetics From Motors to Lasers What

is inside an iPhone ?

2 iPhone Technical Specifications Operating System: OS X Memory: 4gb or

iPhone Technical Specifications Operating System: OS X Memory: 4gb or

8gb versions available Processor: 32-bit, 620 MHz core Muliti-Touch Display: 3.5 inch 480 x 320-pixel HVGA resolution,160 dpi Wireless: Quad-band (850,900,1800,1900 MHz), WiFi (802.11b/g), EDGE, Bluetooth 2.0+EDR Digital Camera: 2.0 mega pixels with 1200x1600 resolution Battery: 1400 mAh, 3.7 V Rechargeable lithium-ion, Talk time: up to 8 hours, Standby time: up to 250 hours, Internet use: up to 6 hours, Video playback: up to 7 hours, Audio playback: up to 24 hours Size: 4.5 x 2.4 x 0.46 in (115 x 61 x 11.6 mm) Weight: 4.8 ounces (135 grams)

For more views of iPhone under the hood see http://www.eetimes.eu/200001828 http://www.eetimes.eu/200001864

3 E

E

Capacitors

Maxwell’s Equations

4 Capacitors in the iPhone

Capacitors in the iPhone

5 E

E

iPhone Capacitive Touch Sensor

6 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Touch Panel

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Touch Panel

Protective cover

Capacitive Touch Sensor

Iphone image by Sean MacEntee http://www.flickr.com/photos/smemon/4679667189/sizes/l/in/photostream/ on flickr

7 Accelerometers

Accelerometers

SENSOR AT REST

RESPONDING TO AN APPLIED ACCELERATION (MOVEMENT SHOWN IS GREATLY EXAGGERATED)

8 Accelerometer

Accelerometer

… detects when you rotate the iPhone from Portrait to Landscape, and automatically rotates the content of the display

9 Accelerometers are Everywhere

Accelerometers are Everywhere

10 Capacitors in the iPhone

Capacitors in the iPhone

11 Liquid Crystal Displays

Liquid Crystal Displays

-Liquid crystals are electrically controlled light switches

12 E

E

E

Liquid Crystal Displays

How can a material rotate polarization? (ANSWER IN LAB 3)

13 Nexus One: Organic LED Display

Nexus One: Organic LED Display

OLED subpixels …

OLED pixels …

Organic emitters …

Nexus One picture in public domain

14 CMOS Photodiode Imagers

CMOS Photodiode Imagers

CMOS Imager Pixel

Photon Charge (electron + hole) Current (E-field pulls charge apart)

15 CMOS Photodiode Imagers

CMOS Photodiode Imagers

16 CMOS Imagers: Color Filters

CMOS Imagers: Color Filters

17 Capacitors in the iPhone

Capacitors in the iPhone

-

18 MOSFET: Transistor in a Nutshell

MOSFET: Transistor in a Nutshell

Conduction electron flow

Control Gate

Drain

Source

Transistor is an electrically (capacitively) controlled switch

Image courtesy of J. Hoyt Group, EECS, MIT. Photo by L. Gomez

Image courtesy of J. Hoyt Group, EECS, MIT. Photo by L. Gomez

19 Erased ‘1’

Erased ‘1’

Programmed ‘0’

8GB iPhone employs Samsung's 65-nanometer 8-Gbyte MLC NAND flash

Stored Electrons

Card picture in public domain

20 Capacitors in the iPhone

Capacitors in the iPhone

Programmed ‘0’

Image courtesy of Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, MIT. Photo by L. Gomez, J. Hoyt

21 Capacitors in the iPhone

Capacitors in the iPhone

22 Three Big Ideas in 6.007

Three Big Ideas in 6.007

MECHANICAL–TO–ELECTRICAL ENERGY CONVERSION INTERACTION OF LIGHT AND MATERIALS QUANTUM MECHANICAL TUNNELING

23 iPhone Components

iPhone Components

6.007 Concepts

Touchpad

Capacitors

Display

Lights, Waveguides, Filters

Memory Card SIM

QM Tunneling Phenomena

Camera

Light Absorption, Photodetectors

Battery

Chemical Energy Conversion / Storage

Antennas

EM waves

Accelerometer, Speaker

Mechanical Energy Conversion, MEMS

LEDs

Solid State Lighting

24 iPhone Components

iPhone Components

6.007 Concepts

Touchpad

Capacitors

Accelerometer, Speaker

Mechanical Energy Conversion, MEMS

Battery

Chemical Energy Conversion

Antennas

EM waves

Camera

Light Absorption, Photodetectors

Display

Lights, Waveguides, Filters, Eyes

Memory Card SIM

QM Tunneling Phenomena

LEDs

Solid State Lighting

25 Inductors in the iPhone

Inductors in the iPhone

not a simple inductor (not magnetostatics)

26 Magnetometers

Magnetometers

Lorentz Force Law…

Hall Effect Magnetic field deflects electrons … … charge piles up on edges & creates transverse potential difference

What is this doing in the iPhone 3G and Nexus One?

Nexus One picture in public domain

27 Course Details

Course Details

Recommended Reading

Grading

5 Labs 10% 10 Problem Sets 20% 2 Midterms 40% 1 Final Exam 30%

Applied Electromagnetics (Third edition) L. C. Shen, J. A. Kong, PWS publishing, 1995.

An Introduction to Quantum Physics A.P. French, E. F. Taylor W. W. Norton & Co, 1978.

Image is in the public domain

28 Energy Conversion in the iPhone

Energy Conversion in the iPhone

29 Energy Conversion in the iPhone

Energy Conversion in the iPhone

Heat: Charging and discharging transistors (capacitors) Microprocessor energy consumption: Variable speed microprocessor 620 MHz at 0.45 mW/MHz Running 7 hours of video at ~280mW (620 MHz) = 1960 mWh Running 8 hours of audio at <280mW (<620 MHz) < 2240 mWh Visible Light: LED in Display: 3mW/cm2 for ~40 cm2 = 120 mW (40%) of processor power 7 hours of displaying = 840 mWh Radio: Antenna radiation: 130mW of radiation (for 135g iPhone ? 0.974 W/kg) 8 hours of operation = 1040 mWh (Note: allowed FCC rating for portable appliances – 1.6 W of radiation per kg) Total consumption over 7 hours of video (microprocessor+display) = 2800 mWh Total consumption over 8 hours of talk (microprocessor+antenna) = 3280 mWh

Battery capacity 1400 mAh at 3.7V = 5180 mWh

30 Good Engineers …

Good Engineers …

Place ethics and morals above all else Are team players Follow a deterministic design process Follow a schedule Document their work Never stop learning

31 6.007 Electromagnetic Energy: From Motors to Lasers

6.007 Electromagnetic Energy: From Motors to Lasers

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2011

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

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