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Erich Fromm (1900-1980)
Erich Fromm (1900-1980)
Fromm’s roots
Fromm’s roots
An atheistic MYSTIC
An atheistic MYSTIC
What about God
What about God
What idols
What idols
WWI: starting to search for answers
WWI: starting to search for answers
Do we try to run from freedom
Do we try to run from freedom
How do we run from freedom
How do we run from freedom
A contemporary application
A contemporary application
Personality Development in Childhood
Personality Development in Childhood
The parent-child relationship
The parent-child relationship
What do human beings need
What do human beings need
Fromm's Psychological Needs
Fromm's Psychological Needs
About Character Types
About Character Types
The Non Productive Character Types
The Non Productive Character Types
The Evil Character Type
The Evil Character Type
On the Continuum from Love of Life to Love of Death
On the Continuum from Love of Life to Love of Death
Ways of Life: To Have or To Be
Ways of Life: To Have or To Be
We are a mixture…
We are a mixture…
Where are you on the "having"/"being" continuum
Where are you on the "having"/"being" continuum
Insecurity/Security
Insecurity/Security
Antagonism/Solidarity
Antagonism/Solidarity
Pleasure/joy
Pleasure/joy
Understanding of sin
Understanding of sin
Life and death
Life and death
Time
Time
Adding your scores
Adding your scores
Interpreting your score
Interpreting your score
What do you think of that analysis
What do you think of that analysis
A cautionary quote
A cautionary quote
THE END
THE END

Презентация: «Erich Fromm (1900-1980)». Автор: coobet. Файл: «Erich Fromm (1900-1980).ppt». Размер zip-архива: 73 КБ.

Erich Fromm (1900-1980)

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1 Erich Fromm (1900-1980)

Erich Fromm (1900-1980)

The most beautiful as well as the most ugly inclinations are not part of a fixed and biologically given human nature but result from the social processes which create [us]. --Erich Fromm

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

2 Fromm’s roots

Fromm’s roots

Fromm was born in Frankfurt, Germany, March 23,1900, in an orthodox Jewish family. His father was a businessman, grandfather was a rabbi, and his mother's uncle was a well-known scholar of the Talmud. Fromm himself became (in his own words) an atheistic mystic. He is a very interesting thinker, often paradoxical.

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

3 An atheistic MYSTIC

An atheistic MYSTIC

Fromm said: " There is no one without a religious need, a need to have a frame of orientation and an object of devotion." " Man is the only animal for whom his own existence is a problem which he has to solve, and from which he cannot escape. He cannot go back to the prehuman state of harmony with nature; he must proceed to develop his reason until he becomes the master of nature, and of himself." From: Fromm, Erich (1950) Psychoanalysis and Religion, Yale University Press: New Haven and London, p. 25 and p. 23

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

4 What about God

What about God

"While it is not possible for man to make valid statements about the positive, about God, it is possible to make such statements about the negative, about idols. Is it not time to cease to argue about God, and instead to unite in unmasking of contemporary forms of idolatry?" From: Fromm, Erich (1950) Psychoanalysis and Religion, Yale University Press: New Haven and London, p. 118

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

5 What idols

What idols

Our own idea of God, the words we use and reify about God --because the Bible prohibits making an image of God in any form (p.115) The deification of state and of power (p.118) The deification of machine and success(p.119) From: Fromm, Erich (1950) Psychoanalysis and Religion, Yale University Press: New Haven and London

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

6 WWI: starting to search for answers

WWI: starting to search for answers

Fromm was 14 when WWI started. He saw most of his professors, who seemed to be rational, normal, bright people, somehow become infected by the spirit of the time, and becoming irrational, hateful, antisemitic nationalists. He wanted to know how this transformation took place, what caused people to "sell out" their freedom, to be destructive and hateful etc.

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

7 Do we try to run from freedom

Do we try to run from freedom

Yes, we often do. We'd like someone else to take responsibility for our actions. This way, we will not be blamed if things go wrong. If a situation is frightening, we may want somebody to take charge for us, and we are ready to surrender our freedom in order to be safe. When we are frightened, we might attempt to control a situation, push it into a mold, make others behave so that it gives us the outcome we want.

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

8 How do we run from freedom

How do we run from freedom

Fromm consider 3 psychic escape mechanisms: Authoritarianism : seeking to control/ to be controlled --wanting an absolute, very clear and unambiguous authority Destructiveness: seeking to eliminate objects or persons perceived as dangerous Automaton conformity: surrendering to rules and norms (even when disagreeing), in order to be safe.

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

9 A contemporary application

A contemporary application

Here is a link to a blog posting that applies Fromm's approach to some of the dynamics currently going on in Iraq (and to nazism etc as well). What do you think of this analysis? Would you agree, disagree?

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

10 Personality Development in Childhood

Personality Development in Childhood

As children grow they move from dependence (less freedom) to autonomy (more freedom) Moving toward more freedom is frightening at times, and these tensions influence the parent-child relationship.

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

11 The parent-child relationship

The parent-child relationship

The ideal parent-child relationship is love, a balanced relationship, which helps the child feel secure while assuming progressively more responsibility. Sometimes the child and the parent stay too interwoven, in a state of symbiotic-relatedness Sometimes the child distances too much too fast, pushes back in a state of withdrawal-destructiveness

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

12 What do human beings need

What do human beings need

According to Fromm, all psychological needs come from our desire to simultaneously: Be free, live authentic lives, but also escape loneliness and be secure

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

13 Fromm's Psychological Needs

Fromm's Psychological Needs

Relatedness but also Identity

Need to be connected, caring and cared for But also Need to develop one's uniqueness

Transcendence but also Rootedness

Need to rise above our animal nature (creatively or destructively), but also Need for a sense of belonging to community, family etc.

Excitation but also Frame-of-orientation

Stimulating and changing environment But also A consistent view of the world and an object of devotion

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

14 About Character Types

About Character Types

The ideal type is what Fromm calls the productive type. This person lives an authentic life, is at one with him/herself, and does not attempt to manipulate. The pressures of life and society, and the choices one makes can result into distortions of character which are non productive or even evil.

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

15 The Non Productive Character Types

The Non Productive Character Types

Too much passivity and dependence: the receptive orientation. Never letting go, stingy, suspicious, compulsive: the hoarding orientation. Aggressive, egocentric, rash, seducing: the exploitive orientation. Selling oneself, becoming a product, opportunist, aimless: the marketing orientation.

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

16 The Evil Character Type

The Evil Character Type

Lover of death and decay, destroying for the sake of destruction, preferring the mechanical over the human, trying to reduce humans to mechanisms, to dehumanize: the necrophilous character type. The opposite of necrophilous is biophilous, or lover of life, the healthy personality.

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

17 On the Continuum from Love of Life to Love of Death

On the Continuum from Love of Life to Love of Death

The productive character is also biophilous. The receptive, hoarding, exploiting, marketing characters have components of "love of death" (or necrophilia) in them. How much? It depends how strong the orientation is. The necrophilous character is evil and death-loving.

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

18 Ways of Life: To Have or To Be

Ways of Life: To Have or To Be

The having mode leads us to live life as a consumer and to see ourselves as a commodity. We define ourselves by what we have and accomplish. This is what as Christians, we might call the "false self". The being mode leads us to live life authentically, without hiding behind a mask. It is about living life, being not building ourselves up. This would be living out of one's true-self, a Christ-like way to live.

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

19 We are a mixture…

We are a mixture…

The ideal would be to always live out of one's "being mode". In fact, we are only partially able to live this way. We need to grow into more authenticity. We need to become less afraid and less sensitive to peer and societal pressure. We need to work at building a society that encourages a productive and life-loving orientation.

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

20 Where are you on the "having"/"being" continuum

Where are you on the "having"/"being" continuum

Consider where you are on the polarities described in the 6 following slides. Keep a note of your scores and add them at the end to see where you rate yourself on the having-being continuum.

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

21 Insecurity/Security

Insecurity/Security

If 1= insecurity, showing itself in one's fear of loosing possessions, status, job, reputation And 10= security, sense of being OK, no matter what happens (because you are yourself, not your possessions, grades, jobs, reputation…) Where are you? (give yourself a score between 1 and 10)

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

22 Antagonism/Solidarity

Antagonism/Solidarity

If 1=antagonism, that is to say, perceiving yourself in competition with others in a win-loose dynamic, afraid that others will take your possessions, or job, or status. And 10=solidarity, that is to say, fo you, sharing with others is enjoyable, you live in a win-win dynamic Where are you? (give yourself a score between 1 and 10)

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

23 Pleasure/joy

Pleasure/joy

If 1=pleasure, that is to say seeking peaks of excitement, maximizing sensory enjoyment, being driven by strong passion And 10=joy, that is to say enjoying being alive, growing, participating, learning, encountering the newness of life Where are you? (give yourself a score between 1 and 10)

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

24 Understanding of sin

Understanding of sin

If 1=avoiding sin to avoid punishment and guilt, repentance and submission being the main elements of forgiveness of sin. If 10=avoiding sin because of not wanting to betray one's own integrity, and not wanting to be alienated from God, the main elements of forgiveness being reconciliation and healing. Where are you? (give yourself a score between 1 and 10)

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

25 Life and death

Life and death

If 1=being afraid of death, afraid of loosing one's life and identity, feeling lost, feeling one "is nothing" And 10=feeling connected to life, focusing on one's love for others and their love for oneself Where are you? (give yourself a score between 1 and 10)

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

26 Time

Time

If 1=focusing on the past and the future, what I can have, what I might loose, what will happen to me And 10=focusing on life as it presents itself to me here and now, being in harmony with life as it enfolds. Where are you? (give yourself a score between 1 and 10)

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

27 Adding your scores

Adding your scores

Where are you as you add your scores? The maximum would be 60, a complete "being" orientation, whereas 6 would be a complete "having" orientation. You will be somewhere in between.

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

28 Interpreting your score

Interpreting your score

If your score is below 30, you tend toward the "having" mode. This sometimes happens when people are stressed, or in "survival" mode. Is this the case for you? Look at again at the various areas. Any specific stressors or demands that influence you at this time? If your score is above 30, you tend toward the "being" mode. Hopefully, as we grow, we move in that direction --though it is certainly a slow and progressive movement.

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

29 What do you think of that analysis

What do you think of that analysis

What do you think of where you ended up? Do you see areas of possible growth? Do you think society and its structure and demands plays a role in how you score on some of these? Might someone who lives in circumstances where plain survival is a challenge tend to be more on one side or the other?

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

30 A cautionary quote

A cautionary quote

We have become things, and our neighbors have become things. The result is that we are powerless and despise ourselves for our impotence. We have no conscience … since we do not dare to trust our own judgment. …We are in the dark and keep up our courage because we hear everybody else whistle as we do. Man for himself, p.248 Is Fromm right? What do you think?

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

31 THE END

THE END

11/10/2015

(c) Lucie Johnson 2005-2010

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