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Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
Early Life
Early Life
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)
Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
Scholarly Career
Scholarly Career
“On Truth and Lie in Their Nonmoral Sense” 1870
“On Truth and Lie in Their Nonmoral Sense” 1870
The Birth of Tragedy 1872
The Birth of Tragedy 1872
The Apollonian
The Apollonian
The Dionysian
The Dionysian
Human, All-Too-Human 1878-1880
Human, All-Too-Human 1878-1880
Health Problems
Health Problems
Daybreak 1881
Daybreak 1881
The Gay Science 1882-1887
The Gay Science 1882-1887
Thus Spoke Zarathustra 1883-1885
Thus Spoke Zarathustra 1883-1885
Beyond Good and Evil 1886
Beyond Good and Evil 1886
The Genealogy of Morals 1887
The Genealogy of Morals 1887
Twilight of the Idols The Antichrist 1888
Twilight of the Idols The Antichrist 1888
Ecce Homo 1888, published 1908
Ecce Homo 1888, published 1908
Success and Destruction
Success and Destruction
Elisabeth F
Elisabeth F
The Will to Power 1901
The Will to Power 1901
Nietzsche Rehabilitated
Nietzsche Rehabilitated

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Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)

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1 Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)

2 Early Life

Early Life

Born October 15, 1844 1849 father dies 1864 goes to Bonn University to study theology and philology (classics and ancient languages) 1865 transfers to Leipzig University to study philology

3 Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)

emphasized the centrality of the will/desire in understanding the world (most importantly humanity) Philosophical pessimism

4 Richard Wagner (1813-1883)

Richard Wagner (1813-1883)

Met in 1868 Became a father figure for Nietzsche Nietzsche saw him as the reincarnation of Greek tragedy Broke with Wagner due to anti-Semitism and Parsifal

5 Scholarly Career

Scholarly Career

Offered the Chair of the Department of Philology at Basle University in 1869 before completing his doctoral work Gave popular lectures on Homer, Greek Tragedy and Pre-Socratic philosophy

6 “On Truth and Lie in Their Nonmoral Sense” 1870

“On Truth and Lie in Their Nonmoral Sense” 1870

First began to question the notion of eternal truth Defined ‘truth’ as “errors whose origin has been forgotten” Left unpublished at the time of his death

7 The Birth of Tragedy 1872

The Birth of Tragedy 1872

Originally dedicated to Wagner; removed in the 2nd edition Focused on Greek theater (especially drama) and music Saw these as the Greeks’ way of overcoming pessimism Distinguished between Apollonian and Dionysian lives—sought a reconciliation of them

8 The Apollonian

The Apollonian

Apollo was charioteer of the sun and the god of reason The Delphic Oracle, an oracle of Apollo, inspired the mission of Socrates Represents life as a problem that must be solved through reason and principle

9 The Dionysian

The Dionysian

Dionysus (Roman: Bacchus) was god of wine His dismemberment by the gods was recreated in traditional bacchanalia Represents passion and the overcoming of pessimism through celebration

10 Human, All-Too-Human 1878-1880

Human, All-Too-Human 1878-1880

Nietzsche’s first approach to understanding human psychology One of the earliest developments of depth psychology Developed several ideas crucial to Freudian psychoanalysis, including repression, sublimation and projection Critically influential on his later work on religion and morality

11 Health Problems

Health Problems

Visited a brothel in his college days, where he contracted syphilis Long list of physical ailments, including gastrointestinal problems, migraines and vision problems Retired due to his condition in 1879 Spent summers in cooler climates (primarily Sils-Maria, Switzerland) and winters in warmer climates (primarily Turin, Italy) Tertiary effects eventually led to his breakdown from dementia in 1889 Spent last 11 years of his life as an invalid

12 Daybreak 1881

Daybreak 1881

First initiated his evaluation of moral ideals Insisted in looking for the motivations that led to certain moral concepts and ideals—genealogical method First contrasted ‘morality’ with ‘life’, insisting that morality as we know it is hostile to worldly life

13 The Gay Science 1882-1887

The Gay Science 1882-1887

First proclaimed the death of God Completes his break with Schopenhauer’s pessimism and begins constructing his positive philosophy Begins his full-scale assault on the ideas of eternal truth and human nature

14 Thus Spoke Zarathustra 1883-1885

Thus Spoke Zarathustra 1883-1885

Inspired by the historical Zoroaster (c.628-551 BCE); written in scriptural style Proclaims the coming of Nietzsche’s higher man, the ?bermensch Introduces the idea of the Eternal Recurrence of the Same (first mentioned in The Gay Science) Aims at the overcoming of pessimism through celebration of life

15 Beyond Good and Evil 1886

Beyond Good and Evil 1886

One of Nietzsche’s best-known and widely read works, inaugurated a period of incredible productivity Explicitly connected morality and religion to hatred of life Advocated a return to ancient systems of ethics that focuses on character Advocated an ethics of nobility

16 The Genealogy of Morals 1887

The Genealogy of Morals 1887

Nietzsche’s most “traditional” philosophical writing Sought to locate the origin of morality in ressentiment Exposed the negative psychological motivations behind pity, guilt, responsibility and punishment

17 Twilight of the Idols The Antichrist 1888

Twilight of the Idols The Antichrist 1888

Nietzsche’s grand declaration of war against Christianity and morality Twilight focuses on the origin of philosophy’s errors in Socrates The Antichrist focuses on Paul as the initiator of Christianity’s denial of life Treats Paul as a perversion of Jesus’ teachings as a result of his commitment to the philosophy of Plato

18 Ecce Homo 1888, published 1908

Ecce Homo 1888, published 1908

Retrospective on his own work Outlines his approach to philosophy Intended to prevent both misuse of his work and blind obedience to his philosophy

19 Success and Destruction

Success and Destruction

First public lectures were given on Nietzsche’s philosophy in 1888, leading to a sudden interest in his works Nietzsche’s long-time friend Lou Salom? publishes the first book on Nietzsche’s philosophy in 1894 Suffered mental breakdown in early 1889 Died August 25, 1900

20 Elisabeth F

Elisabeth F

rster-Nietzsche

Had control of Nietzsche’s literary estate Estranged from her brother because of her husband Bernhard F?rster, an early member of the Nazi party Founded the Nietzsche Archives in 1894, to which she alone granted access Used Nietzsche’s writings to support Hitler and National Socialism Published My Sister and I, a fraudulent work of Nietzsche’s proclaiming her to be his sole interpreter

21 The Will to Power 1901

The Will to Power 1901

Edited by Nietzsche’s sister Made up of notebook entries from a 10-year period ordered thematically Presented as Nietzsche’s uncompleted masterwork Exposed for what it really is by Walter Kaufmann

22 Nietzsche Rehabilitated

Nietzsche Rehabilitated

1950 publication of Walter Kaufmann’s Nietzsche rescues Nietzsche from traditional Nazifications of his thought 1952 Walter Kaufmann exposes My Sister and I as a fraud 1965 Arthur Danto’s Nietzsche and Philosophy sufficiently “normalizes” Nietzsche to make his work studied in the English-speaking world

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