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Roman art 509 BC - 337 AD Sources: www
Roman art 509 BC - 337 AD Sources: www
In terms of style, when Rome conquered Greece, they "adopted" and
In terms of style, when Rome conquered Greece, they "adopted" and
Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady
Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady
Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady Roman, Rome, A.D. 150 - 160 Although the
Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady Roman, Rome, A.D. 150 - 160 Although the
Statuette of Mars/Cobannus
Statuette of Mars/Cobannus
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Statuette of Mars/Cobannus Roman, Gaul, A.D. 125 - 175 A youthful
Statuette of Mars/Cobannus Roman, Gaul, A.D. 125 - 175 A youthful
Statuette of Venus
Statuette of Venus
Statuette of Venus Unknown, sculptor; Roman, 100 - 1 B.C. With its
Statuette of Venus Unknown, sculptor; Roman, 100 - 1 B.C. With its
Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant
Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant
Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant Roman, Asia Minor, 180 - 220 A.D. In
Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant Roman, Asia Minor, 180 - 220 A.D. In
Portrait Head of Julia Titi
Portrait Head of Julia Titi
Portrait Head of Julia Titi Roman, Italy, about A.D. 90 Julia Titi was
Portrait Head of Julia Titi Roman, Italy, about A.D. 90 Julia Titi was
Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess
Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess
Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess Roman, Rome, about A
Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess Roman, Rome, about A
Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros
Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros
Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros Roman, Asia Minor, A.D. 100 - 200
Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros Roman, Asia Minor, A.D. 100 - 200
Cameo Glass Flask
Cameo Glass Flask
Cameo Glass Flask Roman, Rome, about 25 B.C. - A.D. 25 An Egyptian
Cameo Glass Flask Roman, Rome, about 25 B.C. - A.D. 25 An Egyptian
Mold-Blown Cup
Mold-Blown Cup
Mold-Blown Cup Roman, A.D. 1 - 50 "Be glad that you have come" reads
Mold-Blown Cup Roman, A.D. 1 - 50 "Be glad that you have come" reads
Aryballos (Unguentarium)
Aryballos (Unguentarium)
Aryballos (Unguentarium) Roman, Gaul, A.D. 70 - 100 Colorful enamel
Aryballos (Unguentarium) Roman, Gaul, A.D. 70 - 100 Colorful enamel
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2 Roman art 509 BC - 337 AD Sources: www

Roman art 509 BC - 337 AD Sources: www

Getty.edu www.arthistory.about.com www.georgeortiz.com.

3 In terms of style, when Rome conquered Greece, they "adopted" and

In terms of style, when Rome conquered Greece, they "adopted" and

"borrowed" their artistic concepts - thus continuing the tradition of cultural greatness. By this time, people were in the habit of collecting art and placing it in their villas so it was best not to rock the boat - so to speak. Generally speaking, Roman artworks (specifically those works which are now considered to have been the first civic sculptures) were created to glorify those in charge. It was thought that the best way to do this was to make the art big --- really big. And so, arches, buildings and statues (eight and a half foot tall busts were not uncommon), dwarfed most everything around them. Another interesting aspect of the art of Rome is that it depicted people as they really were. After years of "faking it", portraits were crafted to look like the people they represented rather than idealized versions of the same.

4 Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady

Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady

5 Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady Roman, Rome, A.D. 150 - 160 Although the

Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady Roman, Rome, A.D. 150 - 160 Although the

woman shown in this Roman portrait bust can not be identified, stylistic features reveal when and where she was made. Her hairstyle copies one worn by the Empress Faustina, the wife of the emperor Antoninus Pius, who reigned from A.D. 138 to 161. The highly polished surface of the bust also signals an Antonine date for its creation. Portraits of the imperial family defined high style and fashion, setting the standards for private portraiture of the social elite. This woman appears to be of mature years, yet she displays no physical signs of aging. Roman portraits of women tend to be more idealized and less individualized than those of men. The political or social message that a portrait conveyed was as important as its actual resemblance to the person portrayed. For this reason, portraits of Roman women often are concerned more with representing the latest ideas of fashion and beauty than they are with depicting actual features.

6 Statuette of Mars/Cobannus

Statuette of Mars/Cobannus

7 Statuette of Mars/Cobannus Roman, Gaul, A.D. 125 - 175 A youthful

Statuette of Mars/Cobannus Roman, Gaul, A.D. 125 - 175 A youthful

figure wears a typical costume for the northern Roman provinces: a long-sleeved tunic, leggings, and a cloak fastened with a round brooch. On his head he wears a contemporary Roman helmet, rather than the classicizing headgear found on most Roman sculpture. The whites of his eyes are silvered and the irises drilled. The figure's pose looks odd now, but he originally held a spear in his upraised right hand and rested his left hand on a shield. The Latin inscription on the base reads, "Sacred to the venerable god Cobannus, Lucius Maccius Aeternus, duumvir, [dedicated this] in accordance with a vow." The statue probably represents Cobannus, a local deity who was equivalent to Mars, the Roman god of war. The family of Lucius Maccius Aeternus is known from other inscriptions in Gaul and must have been important, for a duumvir was one of the two chief magistrates of a Roman colony. This statuette is said to have been found in France, in the Roman province of Gaul.

8 Statuette of Venus

Statuette of Venus

9 Statuette of Venus Unknown, sculptor; Roman, 100 - 1 B.C. With its

Statuette of Venus Unknown, sculptor; Roman, 100 - 1 B.C. With its

depiction of Venus, the goddess of love, crouching in her bath, this damaged statuette is a copy of an original large-scale sculpture dating to the 100s B.C., probably by Doidalsas of Bithynia. The goddess crouches low in order to allow an attendant, who is not depicted, to pour water over her. The original statue showed the interest of Hellenistic sculptors in rendering the nude female form. While the earlier statue does not survive, later copies such as this piece preserve its general appearance. These copies were especially popular in the Roman period, with artists reproducing the original in large numbers in a variety of media and sizes and with slight variations of pose. Roman patrons often commissioned miniature copies of large-scale Greek public art for their private use, decorating their homes with the statuettes. The use of the valuable medium of rock crystal marks this piece as a prestigious luxury item for a rich patron.

10 Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant

Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant

11 Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant Roman, Asia Minor, 180 - 220 A.D. In

Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant Roman, Asia Minor, 180 - 220 A.D. In

Greek mythology the giants, children of Ge (Earth) and Uranus (Sky), tried to overthrow the Olympian gods in a mighty battle. This young giant, identified by his snaky legs, was originally shown in combat with a now-missing opponent. He raises his right arm, wrapped in an animal skin, to ward off a blow. The giant's unkempt hair and the clumps of body hair sprouting from his chest, belly, and shoulders emphasize his wildness and barbarity. The battle between the Olympian gods and the giants was extremely popular in Greek art; after the Persian War, it became an allegory for battles between Greeks and barbarians. The giant's twisting pose, the intense pathos of his expression, and the choice of the subject itself were deeply influenced by the style of art developed in the Greek city of Pergamon in the 100s B.C., a style that saw a resurgence in Roman art of the late 100s A.D. This figure may originally have been part of a large group depicting the battle. In the Roman period, groups of small bronzes were often used as decorative elements on objects such as furniture or chariots; the attachment hole on the giant's "knee" suggests this usage.

12 Portrait Head of Julia Titi

Portrait Head of Julia Titi

13 Portrait Head of Julia Titi Roman, Italy, about A.D. 90 Julia Titi was

Portrait Head of Julia Titi Roman, Italy, about A.D. 90 Julia Titi was

the daughter of the Roman emperor Titus, who ruled during the Flavian dynasty from A.D. 79 to 81. Recorded in history as a wild young woman who was her uncle Domitian's mistress, Julia died in A.D. 91 at the age of thirty. This portrait depicts Julia with a dramatic, curling hairstyle. A diadem originally inlaid with materials such as gold, silver, or gems marked her imperial status. Julia would have worn earrings, probably made of gold, which are now missing; the small holes at either side of her neck indicate the original presence of a now-missing necklace. Traces of paint preserved in Julia's curls show that her hair was originally a reddish color. The deeply drilled curls and chiaroscuro effect are typical of Roman sculpture in this period. Portraits of the women in the imperial family set fashions for the entire Roman Empire. A hairstyle worn by an empress or princess would soon appear on portraits of ladies of the imperial court and then spread out through the rest of Roman society as a sign of taste and status. Elaborate curled hairstyles reminiscent of that worn by Julia became the mark of fashionable women in the Flavian period.

14 Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess

Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess

15 Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess Roman, Rome, about A

Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess Roman, Rome, about A

D. 50 This large statue of a seated woman portrays Cybele, the mother goddess, with many of her attributes, each signifying a different role. She wears a crown in the form of a towered wall, a symbol of her role as protectress of cities. Her right hand holds a bunch of wheat and poppy heads, a symbol of her role as a goddess of agriculture. Her most famous attribute, the lion, sits at her feet, symbolizing her power over wild animals. Under her left arm she holds additional symbols: the rudder and the cornucopia. This statue's most unusual feature is its face, which belongs to an older Roman matron, not an idealized goddess. Wealthy Roman women would frequently commission portraits of themselves depicted as if they were goddesses. Cybele is an unusual choice, however, which may indicate that this woman was a priestess in the goddess's service.

16 Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros

Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros

17 Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros Roman, Asia Minor, A.D. 100 - 200

Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros Roman, Asia Minor, A.D. 100 - 200

Standing with her weight on one leg and clothed in a voluminous gown, this statue of a goddess looks off to her left. Her precise identity is uncertain because the figure displays elements connected with more than one deity: Hygieia, the goddess of health, and Aphrodite, the goddess of love. The presence of the small, sleeping Eros, the winged young god of love, who leans against her leg, and the goddess's hairstyle argue in favor of her identity as Aphrodite. Yet the dress the goddess wears and the snake she holds are more typical of Hygieia. Furthermore, the egg she holds, an emblemof Hygieia's father Asklepios, associates her with that goddess. As a relative latecomer to the classical pantheon, Hygieia lacked a distinct mythology and hence definitive attributes. Frequently Hygieia was blended or merged with another goddess, both in cult practice and in depictions, and this combination may be represented here.

18 Cameo Glass Flask

Cameo Glass Flask

19 Cameo Glass Flask Roman, Rome, about 25 B.C. - A.D. 25 An Egyptian

Cameo Glass Flask Roman, Rome, about 25 B.C. - A.D. 25 An Egyptian

pharaoh, identified by his crown and staff, and an obelisk with meaningless hieroglyphs decorate the front of this Roman cameo glass flask. On the other sides, one boy approaches an altar surmounted by the Egyptian god Thoth in the form of a baboon, while a second boy approaches another altar decorated with a uraeus or sacred snake. The decoration of this small flask, which probably held perfumed oil, may show the story of the young god Horus, who was brought back to life by Thoth after being stung by a scorpion. The imagery on this vessel may have had specific meaning for its owner; or, more probably, it may reflect the general popularity of Egyptianizing scenes in Roman art after the Roman Empire's annexation of Egypt. Due to the time and labor involved in its creation, cameo glass was very rare. Artisans first covered or encased colored glass with opaque white glass. They partially cut away the white layer to reveal the colored background, then carved the raised white areas in relief. Artisans practiced this technique almost exclusively in the early Roman Empire.

20 Mold-Blown Cup

Mold-Blown Cup

21 Mold-Blown Cup Roman, A.D. 1 - 50 "Be glad that you have come" reads

Mold-Blown Cup Roman, A.D. 1 - 50 "Be glad that you have come" reads

the Greek inscription encircling this Roman mold-blown glass cup. This common expression urging the drinker to enjoy the moment is typical of the friendly exhortations found on early Roman cups. Glass vessels decorated with inscriptions were extremely popular in the first century A.D. and were found throughout the Roman Empire. An artisan made this cup by blowing glass into a baked clay mold, a technique that originated in the first century A.D. in the area of Roman Palestine. This technique allows the mass-production of identical vessels. At first, the new technique was employed to produce ornate vessels, but simple forms were soon manufactured as well.

22 Aryballos (Unguentarium)

Aryballos (Unguentarium)

23 Aryballos (Unguentarium) Roman, Gaul, A.D. 70 - 100 Colorful enamel

Aryballos (Unguentarium) Roman, Gaul, A.D. 70 - 100 Colorful enamel

inlays elaborate the twelve large pentagonal panels covering the surface of this Roman bronze aryballos. Within these panels, curling tendrils on a blue enamel background surround an inner pentagon outlined in red enamel. The inner pentagons contain different decorative motifs, including birds and rosettes. The use of enamel and pentagonal panels is typical of metal vessels made in northern Gaul. With its round body and broad mouth, this aryballos reproduces the shape of a type of handleless ancient Greek vessel used to hold perfumed oils, popular six hundred years before this object was made. This Roman version has an enameled metal handle suspended from wire loops. Stylized elephant heads, now missing their trunks, form the attachment points on the mouth of the vessel, yet the heavy weight of the metal vessel's body would have made the handle nonfunctional.

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